Before I get too far into this article let me start by saying how remarkably easy it is to get sideways in an activity that is one of the most innately programmed, second only to breathing. Successfully toileting includes recognizing the need to eliminate, knowing where to go and being able to get there, being able to void completely and maintaining good hygiene practices.
Failure to recognize the need to eliminate can be related to issues with disability, particularly those related to the nervous system, aging, medication side effects and damage to the associated organs from trauma. Unexplained or unexpected incontinence (bowel or bladder) is sometimes the first sign of an emerging problem and should be seen as a big red flag. This is an issue that should send care providers on a root-cause hunt.
Bladder or bowel stasis can occur for a variety of physical or physiological reasons. Even diet and activity level have a significant impact. Chronic incontinence can lead to skin breakdown over time in an area that has a large amount of potentially harmful bacteria. Individuals who have undergone one or more catheterization procedures can have issues with urinary tract infection or trauma to the urethra or bladder and should receive additional observation to detect emerging problems.
Successfully toileting includes recognizing the need to eliminate, knowing where to go and being able to get there.
Making it easy for people to get to the restroom when they need to go is a simple way to cut down on toileting problems. They should be in reasonable proximity to a bathroom and should wear clothing they can get in and out of easily. Individuals who have frequent accidents sometimes do better when they wear incontinence briefs or follow a toileting schedule. Do NOT use unreasonable restriction of fluids to prevent urinary incontinence. It can lead to significant levels of dehydration, one of the Fatal Five!
Accidental falls in the restroom are a common occurrence and can be deadly. Grab bars and raised toilet seats make a tremendous difference for people with physical challenges and can help them be safe and independent with toileting tasks. A brief word about raised toilet seats: It is much easier to initiate a bowel movement when the angle between the trunk and thighs is 90 degrees or less. Providing a step stool or other foot support can be extremely helpful for some people. Individuals who require more specialized support should have access to any needed lifting equipment and those supporting their needs should be thoroughly trained to use it safely.
Some diseases are passed from one person to another via exposure to feces, so proper hand washing is an absolute must. It is particularly important when several people live or work in the same place. Many people also need assistance to wipe after using the restroom and to manage menstrual hygiene practices. Several individuals who have an identified behavior of fecal smearing do so because of the need for assistance with hygiene tasks.
With proper identification and support of existing issues most people can be independent and successful with toileting tasks. Also make sure that individuals or those providing assistance report any changes in toileting needs. As we’ve stated several times, early identification can make a dramatic difference to the ultimate outcome.